Comparison and analysis of national climate change adaptation policies in the Nordic region

June 2023
Nordic co-operation, online

This report presents the findings from a comparative study of climate change adaptation policy in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Based on a comparative analysis of the policy landscape, including legislative frameworks, policy instruments, and financing mechanisms, the report identifies best practices and main challenges as well as key factors influencing the progress of national adaptation. Despite considerable progress in several of the Nordic countries, the report identifies multiple challenges, including lack of systems for monitoring, reporting and evaluation, lack of sufficient funding and economic incentives and lack of appropriate tools and knowledge for aligning adaptation with other societal goals, such as mitigation and sustainable development. The report ends by suggesting ways to enhance adaptation in the Nordic countries.